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CCTV (CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION)
Camera choice for use as a deterrent or discreet surveillance
Internal / External / Static / PTZ / Dome Cameras
Systems compliant with the NSI code of practice and BS EN 50132
Remotely Monitored systems complying with BS 8418
Systems Remotely Monitored by customer
Minimise or eliminate the number of On-site Security Staff and save Cost
Create Safety for On-site Security Staff
Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR)
CAMS Fire & Security PLC - Vivaro Float Vans
CCTV (CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION)
These systems typically consist of a camera to capture the picture, a means of processing a number of cameras, a means of recording and a means of displaying the picture.



CAMERAS
The type of camera depends on a number of factors including:
For internal or external use
Cameras may be housed in purpose designed housings which are built to an IP rating, typically IP 65. For external use they include a demister for minimizing the window of the housing from misting with changing environmental conditions.
For specific lighting levels
Different cameras are designed to operate at different levels of lighting. Because colour production is less capable of operating at lower levels of lighting, many cameras incorporate a facility such that when the lighting level falls below a certain lighting level, the camera switches from colour capture to black and white, known a monochrome. When the lighting level increases the capture reverts to colour.
Lighting can be assisted by using additional lighting, white light is required or infr-red from purpose designed lighting.
Infra-red Lighting
A purpose designed source of lighting which is often recognized as a red glow. The red glow may not be acceptable, say in domestic areas, in which case different frequencies of light source can be chosen so that the red glow is invisible.
Physical size
The size will be influenced by consideration of the aesthetics, whether the camera is to be used as a deterrent and therefore needs to be obvious or whether it is to be inconspicuous.
Cameras may be mounted in the shape of a dome whereby it is difficult for someone to see the area the camera is viewing. Alternatively the camera can be traditional in shape without a housing if it is internal or mounted in a box shape housing for external use.
Covert use
There are occasions when a crime is suspected and evidence is to be gathered for a persons or persons to be charged.
For detail to be collected by the camera
The detail is referred to as the resolution of the camera and more recent cameras with high resolution are known as mega-pixel cameras.
Whether the camera view is to be changed remotely
Cameras may be moved to view differing views and the control can either be by an operator using a CCTV keyboard or the system programmed to move and automatically view a number of specific scenes which is known as tours.
Vandal Proof or Vandal Resistant
Dependent on the environment the housing of cameras are designed to resist different levels of attack.
Camera Lens
The first need is to decide on the requirements of the particular camera to which the lens is to be fitted.
View - lens can be chosen for wide views or zoom views for close up views of objects some distance from the camera.
Motorised Lenses - these can be zoomed in or out and then refocused remotely. These are used where the camera direction can be changed.
Auto-iris - The iris like the human eye determines the amount of light entering the camera. The function is an automatic adjustment within the lens controlled by the camera.
CAMERA PROCESSING
If more than one camera is incorporated in the system it will need to be processed to be seen on a CCTV monitor. Such systems include switchers which switch from one camera to another to display on the monitor one camera at a time with a dwell time depending on the amount of time that is required to view each camera.
Alternatively Quad units are available which display four cameras on the monitor at a time.
Most common is the use of DVR's which is a unit combining electronic recording with a multiplexing facility. With such systems the recording and display can be arranged so that a number of cameras are recorded and displayed at the same time.
More sophisticated systems receive a number of cameras and display them on a number of monitors in a chosen combination with a piece of equipment called a matrix.
RECORDING
Video tape recorders have now been replaced by hard disk recorders which allow a great deal more flexibility including much more memory, allow archiving of recordings from built-in hard disk recorders, can be viewed at the same time as previously recorded images are viewed and can transmit pictures away from the site to a remote site using the Internet. There are many manufacturers including Sanyo, Panasonic, Pelco and Dedicated Micros (DM) to name a few.
MONITOR
The monitor is used to view images from the cameras and may be Black & White or Colour and be a number of sizes depending on space, position from the viewer and the number of cameras required to be viewed on the monitor.
The two technologies used are LCD and cathode ray tube. The LCD type is popular because it takes much less space but the Cathode Ray Tube provides a better reproduction of the image.
Manufacturers:- Panasonic, Sanyo, Vista, Vantage.



INTEGRATION
CCTV can be interfaced with other systems such as Access Control and Intruder alarm systems. For example, if a door reader is activated the camera viewing that door can be emphasized to display the door and person/s at the door. Likewise, where the intruder alarm has been activated the camera viewing that detector can be displayed on a monitor.
The CCTV can be interfaced with Graphical Interfaces for larger systems with full-time security manning. Displays of the premises can be shown on a monitor and when there is activity from a device, the display will graphically drill down to the specific area and device generating the alert.



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CAMS® Fire & Security PLC
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Wedgwood Way
Pin Green Industrial Area
Stevenage
Hertfordshire
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